The Reaction of Hydrogen Halides with Tetrahydroborate Anion and Hexahydro-Closo-Hexaborate Dianion


The mechanism of the consecutive halogenation of the tetrahydroborate anion [BH4]− by hydrogen halides (HX, X = F, Cl, Br) and hexahydro-closo-hexaborate dianion [B6H6]2− by HCl via electrophile-induced nucleophilic substitution (EINS) was established by ab initio DFT calculations [M06/6-311++G(d,p) and wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p)] in acetonitrile (MeCN), taking into account non-specific solvent effects (SMD model). Successive substitution of H− by X− resulted in increased electron deficiency of borohydrides and changes in the character of boron atoms from nucleophilic to highly electrophilic. This, in turn, increased the tendency of the B–H bond to transfer a proton rather than a hydride ion. Thus, the regularities established suggested that it should be possible to carry out halogenation more selectively with the targeted synthesis of halogen derivatives with a low degree of substitution, by stabilization of H2 complex, or by carrying out a nucleophilic substitution of B–H bonds activated by interaction with Lewis acids (BL3).

Funding source: Russian Science Foundation (RSF grant number 19-73-00309). L.M.E. and E.S.S. thank the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation for the partial support of this research.
Countries: Russian Federation

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