Applications of lignin-derived catalysts for green synthesis


This review intends to introduce the application of lignin-derived catalyst for green organic synthesis over latest two decades and aims to present a renewable alternative for conventional catalyst for future industry application. The structure of lignin is initially introduced in this review. Then, various pre-treatment and activation technologies of lignin are systematically presented, which includes physical activation for the formation of well-developed porosity and chemical activation to introduce catalytic active sites. Finally, the catalytic performances of various lignin-derived catalysts are rationally assessed and compared with conventional catalysts, which involves lignin-derived solid acids for hydrolysis, hydration, dehydration (trans)esterification, multi-component reaction and condensation, lignin-derived solid base for Knoevenagel reaction, lignin-derived electro-catalysts for electro-oxidation, oxygen reduction reaction, and lignin-derived supported transition metal catalysts for hydrogenation, oxidation, coupling reaction, tandem reaction, condensation reaction, ring-opening reaction, Friedel-Crafts-type reaction, Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, click reaction, Glaser reaction, cycloaddition and (trans)esterification. The above lignin-derived catalysts thus successfully promote the transformations of organic compounds, carbon dioxide, biomass-based cellulose, saccharide and vegetable oil into valuable chemicals and fuels. At the end of this review, some perspectives are given on the current issues and tendency on the lignin-derived catalysts for green chemistry.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

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