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Calculation and Analysis of Efficiencies and Annual Performances of Power-to-Gas Systems


This paper describes a generic and systematic method to calculate the efficiency and the annual performance for Power-to-Gas (PtG) systems. This approach gives the basis to analytically compare different PtG systems using different technologies under different boundary conditions. To have a comparable basis for efficiency calculations, a structured break down of the PtG system is done. Until now, there has not been a universal approach for efficiency calculations. This has resulted in a wide variety of efficiency calculations used in feasibility studies and for business-case calculations. For this, the PtG system is divided in two sub-systems: the electrolysis and the methanation. Each of the two sub-systems consists of several subsystem boundary levels. Staring from the main unit, i.e. the electrolysis stack and/or methanation reactor, further units that are required to operate complete PtG system are considered with their respective subsystem boundary conditions. The paper provides formulas how the efficiency of each level can be calculated and how efficiency deviations can be integrated which are caused by the extended energy flow calculations to and from energy users and thermal losses. By this, a sensitivity analysis of the sub-systems can be gained and comprehensive goal functions for optimizations can be defined. In a second step the annual performance of the system is calculated as the ratio of useable output and energetic input over one year. The input is the integral of the annual need of electrical and thermal energy of a PtG system, depending on the different operation states of the plant. The output is the higher heating value of the produced gas and – if applicable – heat flows that are used externally. The annual performance not only evaluates the steady-state operating efficiency under full load, but also other states of the system such as cold standby or service intervals. It is shown that for a full system operation assessment and further system concept development, the annual performance is of much higher importance than the steady-state system efficiency which is usually referred to. In a final step load profiles are defined and the annual performance is calculated for a specific system configuration. Using this example, different operation strategies are compared.

Related subjects: Production & Supply Chain
Countries: Switzerland

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