Fluorination vs. Chlorination: Effect on the Sensor Response of Tetrasubstituted Zinc Phthalocyanine Films to Ammonia


In this work, the effect of fluorine and chlorine substituents in tetrasubstituted zinc phthalocyanines, introduced into the non-peripheral (ZnPcR4-np, R = F, Cl) and peripheral (ZnPcR4-p, R = F, Cl) positions of macrocycle, on their structure and chemiresistive sensor response to low concentration of ammonia is studied. The structure and morphology of the zinc phthalocyanines films (ZnPcR4) were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy methods. To understand different effects of chlorine and fluorine substituents, the strength and nature of the bonding of ammonia and ZnPcHal4 molecules were studied by quantum chemical simulation. It was shown on the basis of comparative analysis that the sensor response to ammonia was found to increase in the order ZnPcCl4-np < ZnPcF4-np < ZnPcF4-p < ZnPcCl4-p, which is in good agreement with the values of bonding energy between hydrogen atoms of NH3 and halogen substituents in the phthalocyanine rings. ZnPcCl4-p films demonstrate the maximal sensor response to ammonia with the calculated detection limit of 0.01 ppm; however, they are more sensitive to humidity than ZnPcF4-p films. It was shown that both ZnPcF4-p and ZnPcCl4-p and can be used for the selective detection of NH3 in the presence of carbon dioxide, dichloromethane, acetone, toluene, and ethanol.

Funding source: Russian Science Foundation (project number 20-73-00080).
Related subjects: Production & Supply Chain
Countries: Russian Federation

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