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A Statistical Assessment of Blending Hydrogen into Gas Networks


The deployment of low-carbon hydrogen in gas grids comes with strategic benefits in terms of energy system integration and decarbonization. However, hydrogen thermophysical properties substantially differ from natural gas and pose concerns of technical and regulatory nature. The present study investigates the blending of hydrogen into distribution gas networks, focusing on the steady-state fluid dynamic response of the grids and gas quality compliance issues at increasing hydrogen admixture levels. Two blending strategies are analyzed, the first of which involves the supply of NG–H2 blends at the city gate, while the latter addresses the injection of pure hydrogen in internal grid locations. In contrast with traditional case-specific analyses, results are derived from simulations executed over a large number (i.e., one thousand) of synthetic models of gas networks. The responses of the grids are therefore analyzed in a statistical fashion. The results highlight that lower probabilities of violating fluid dynamic and quality restrictions are obtained when hydrogen injection occurs close to or in correspondence with the system city gate. When pure hydrogen is injected in internal grid locations, even very low volumes (1% vol of the total) may determine gas quality violations, while fluid dynamic issues arise only in rare cases of significant hydrogen injection volumes (30% vol of the total).

Related subjects: Hydrogen Blending
Countries: Italy

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