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Concepts for Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines and Their Implications on the Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment System


Hydrogen as carbon-free fuel is a very promising candidate for climate-neutral internal combustion engine operation. In comparison to other renewable fuels, hydrogen does obviously not produce CO2 emissions. In this work, two concepts of hydrogen internal combustion engines (H2 -ICEs) are investigated experimentally. One approach is the modification of a state-of-the-art gasoline passenger car engine using hydrogen direct injection. It targets gasoline-like specific power output by mixture enrichment down to stoichiometric operation. Another approach is to use a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with spark ignition and hydrogen port fuel injection. Here, a diesel-like indicated efficiency is targeted through constant lean-burn operation. The measurement results show that both approaches are applicable. For the gasoline engine-based concept, stoichio-metric operation requires a three-way catalyst or a three-way NOX storage catalyst as the primary exhaust gas aftertreatment system. For the diesel engine-based concept, state-of-the-art selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts can be used to reduce the NOx emissions, provided the engine calibration ensures sufficient exhaust gas temperature levels. In conclusion, while H2 -ICEs present new challenges for the development of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, they are capable to realize zero-impact tailpipe emission operation.

Funding source: The presented research work was carried out at the Center for Mobile Propulsion (CMP) of RWTH Aachen University with funding by the German Science Council Wissenschaftsrat (WR) and the German Research Foundation Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Germany

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