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Research of Nanomaterials as Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy Storage


This paper has experimentally proved that hydrogen accumulates in large quantities in metal-ceramic and pocket electrodes of alkaline batteries during their operation. Hydrogen accumulates in the electrodes in an atomic form. After the release of hydrogen from the electrodes, a powerful exothermic reaction of atomic hydrogen recombination with a large energy release occurs. This exothermic reaction is the cause of thermal runaway in alkaline batteries. For the KSL-15 battery, the gravimetric capacity of sintered nickel matrix of the oxide-nickel electrode, as hydrogen storage, is 20.2 wt%, and cadmium electrode is 11.5 wt%. The stored energy density in the metal-ceramic matrix of the oxide-nickel electrode of the battery KSL-15 is 44 kJ/g, and in the cadmium electrode it is 25 kJ/g. The similar values for the KPL-14 battery are as follows. The gravimetric capacity of the active substance of the pocket oxide-nickel electrode, as a hydrogen storage, is 22 wt%, and the cadmium electrode is 16.9 wt%. The density of the stored energy in the active substance oxide-nickel electrode is 48 kJ/g, and in the active substance of the cadmium electrode it is 36.8 kJ/g. The obtained results of the accumulation of hydrogen energy in the electrodes by the electrochemical method are three times higher than any previously obtained results using the traditional thermochemical method.


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