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A Review of Cleaner Alternative Fuels for Maritime Transportation

Abstract

Environmental regulations have always been an essential component in the natural gas supply chain, with recent and greater emphasis on shipping operations. Recently more stringent regulations have been imposed by the International Maritime Organization on global maritime shipping operations. This review explores the challenges and opportunities associated with substituting heavy fuel oils used for maritime transportation with relatively cleaner fuels. First, the review considers the feasibility and environmental dimensions of different bunker fuels, including liquefied natural gas, hydrogen, and ammonia. Also, the operational viability and optimal conditions for these fuels are examined. Secondly, the review considers the entire supply chain, with an emphasis on how liquefied natural gas exporters can establish synergies across the supply chain to also deliver the end-product required by customers instead of delivering only liquefied natural gas. Finally, measures that can support ship operators to comply with environmental regulations are suggested. The outcomes of this review supports the notion that the demand for alternative fuels will continue to increase as the transportation sector moves towards integrating cleaner fuels to comply with increasing environmental regulations.

Funding source: This publication was made possible by GSRA grant, ID# GSRA6-2-0615-19090, from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation).
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Qatar
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/content/journal3043
2021-04-15
2022-10-02
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal3043
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