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Sustainable Public Transport Strategies—Decomposition of the Bus Fleet and Its Influence on the Decrease in Greenhouse Gas Emissions


The COVID pandemic has caused a major exodus of passengers who chose urban and suburban transport. In many countries, especially in the European Union, there is a tendency to choose individual means of transport, causing damage to the environment and contributing significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. One method to promote urban transport is replacing bus fleets with newer ones, thus making public transport more attractive and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust fume components into the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to show a methodology for calculating CO2e for bus fleets. When determining CO2e, the principal greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CH4, and N2O, are usually considered. However, CO emissions also have indirect effects on climate through enhanced levels of tropospheric O3 and increased lifetime of CH4; therefore, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO emissions were determined for CO2e emission calculations. Two bus fleet variant scenarios were analysed; the first non-investment variant assumed passenger transport using the old fleet without any P&R parking zones. The second scenario was based on the current state, which includes the purchase of new low-emission buses and the construction of P&R infrastructure. The calculations were performed using the COPERT emission model with real data from 52 buses running on 13 lines. For the analysed case study of the Rzeszow agglomeration and neighbouring communes, implementing the urban and suburban transport modernisation project resulted in a reduction in estimated CO2e emissions of about 450 t. The methodology presented, which also considers the impact of CO emissions on the greenhouse effect, is a new element of the study that has not been presented in previous works and may serve as a model for other areas in the field of greenhouse gas emission analyses. The future research scope includes investigation of other fuels and powertrain supplies, such as hydrogen and hybrid vehicles.

Funding source: The APC was funded by Rzeszow University of Technology
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Poland

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