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Cost, Footprint, and Reliability Implications of Deploying Hydrogen in Off-grid Electric Vehicle Charging Stations: A GIS-assisted Study for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

For the first time, we quantify cost, footprint, and reliability implications of deploying hydrogen-based generation in off-grid electric vehicle charging stations (CS) using an optimization model coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis for the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also account for the challenges associated with wind energy deployment as a candidate generation technology within city centers. The analysis was restricted to carbon-free technologies: photovoltaics (PV), wind, battery, and hydrogen fuel-cells. At current prevailing technology costs, hydrogen can reduce the required footprint of off-grid CSs by 25% at a small incremental cost increase without impacting the charging reliability. By 2030, however, hydrogen will simultaneously provide the footprint and cost advantages. If we allow as little as 5% of the annual load to be unmet, the required footprint of the CS decreases by 60%. The levelized cost of energy values for the CS by 2030 can range between 0.13 and 0.20 $/kWh depending on learning-curve assumptions. The footprints calculated are then mapped to five land parcel categories in Riyadh: gas station, hospital, mall, school, and university. Incorporating hydrogen in CS design increases the number of parcels that could accommodate CSs by 15e45% via reducing the required PV array (i.e., footprint).

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Saudi Arabia
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/content/journal3758
2022-07-19
2022-10-02
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal3758
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