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Operating Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage Systems in Wind Farms for Smooth Power Injection: A Penalty Fees Aware Model Predictive Control


Smooth power injection is one of the possible services that modern wind farms could provide in the not-so-far future, for which energy storage is required. Indeed, this is one among the three possible operations identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA)-Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (HIA) within the Task 24 final report, that may promote their integration into the main grid, in particular when paired to hydrogen-based energy storages. In general, energy storage can mitigate the inherent unpredictability of wind generation, providing that they are deployed with appropriate control algorithms. On the contrary, in the case of no storage, wind farm operations would be strongly affected, as well as their economic performances since the penalty fees wind farm owners/operators incur in case of mismatches between the contracted power and that actually delivered. This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm that operates a Hydrogen-based Energy Storage System (HESS), consisting of one electrolyzer, one fuel cell and one tank, paired to a wind farm committed to smooth power injection into the grid. The MPC relies on Mixed-Logic Dynamic (MLD) models of the electrolyzer and the fuel cell in order to leverage their advanced features and handles appropriate cost functions in order to account for the operating costs, the potential value of hydrogen as a fuel and the penalty fee mechanism that may negatively affect the expected profits generated by the injection of smooth power. Numerical simulations are conducted by considering wind generation profiles from a real wind farm in the center-south of Italy and spot prices according to the corresponding market zone. The results show the impact of each cost term on the performances of the controller and how they can be effectively combined in order to achieve some reasonable trade-off. In particular, it is highlighted that a static choice of the corresponding weights can lead to not very effective handling of the effects given by the combination of the system conditions with the various exogenous’, while a dynamic choice may suit the purpose instead. Moreover, the simulations show that the developed models and the set-up mathematical program can be fruitfully leveraged for inferring indications on the devices’ sizing.

Funding source: This project has received funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (now Clean Hydrogen Partnership) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 779469.
Countries: Italy ; Norway

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