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Introduction of Hydrogen in the Kosovo Transportation Sector


Based on the energy strategy of the Republic of Kosovo from 2017–2026, the increase in the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) in the national energy system was aimed at. However, the hydrogen potential was not mentioned. In this work, a roadmap toward the introduction of hydrogen in the energy system, with the main focus on the transportation sector through three phases, is proposed. In the first phase (until 2024), the integration of hydrogen in the transportation sector produced via water electrolysis from the grid electricity, with the increase of up to a 0.5% share of fuel cell vehicles, is intended. In the second phase (2025–2030), the hydrogen integration in the transportation sector is increased by including renewable hydrogen, where the share of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) will be around 4%, while in the third phase (2031–2050), around an 8% share of FCEVs in the transportation was planned. The technical and environmental analysis of hydrogen integration is focused on both the impact of hydrogen in the decarbonization of the transportation sector and the energy system. To model the Kosovo energy system, the hourly deterministic EnergyPLAN model was used. This research describes the methodology based on EnergyPLAN modeling that can be used for any energy system to provide a clear path of RES and hydrogen implementation needed to achieve a zero-emission goal, which was also set by various other countries. The predicted decrease in GHG emissions from 8 Mt in the referent year 2017 amounts to 7 Mt at the end of the first phase 2024, and 4.4 Mt at the end of the second phase 2030, to achieve 0 Mt by 2050. In order to achieve it, the required amount of hydrogen by 2030 resulted in 31,840 kg/year, and by 2050, around 89,731 kg/year. The results show the concrete impact of hydrogen on transport system stabilization and its influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Croatia ; Kosovo

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