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Review of Life Cycle Assessments for Steel and Environmental Analysis of Future Steel Production Scenarios


The steel industry is focused on reducing its environmental impact. Using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, the impacts of the primary steel production via the blast furnace route and the scrap-based secondary steel production via the EAF route are assessed. In order to achieve environmentally friendly steel production, breakthrough technologies have to be implemented. With a shift from primary to secondary steel production, the increasing steel demand is not met due to insufficient scrap availability. In this paper, special focus is given on recycling methodologies for metals and steel. The decarbonization of the steel industry requires a shift from a coal-based metallurgy towards a hydrogen and electricity-based metallurgy. Interim scenarios like the injection of hydrogen and the use of pre-reduced iron ores in a blast furnace can already reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions up to 200 kg CO2/t hot metal. Direct reduction plants combined with electrical melting units/furnaces offer the opportunity to minimize GHG emissions. The results presented give guidance to the steel industry and policy makers on how much renewable electric energy is required for the decarbonization of the steel industry

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Germany

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