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Numerical Simulation on the Thermal Dynamic Behavior of Liquid Hydrogen in a Storage Tank for Trailers


In the present study, a numerical model was established to investigate the thermal dynamic behavior of liquid hydrogen in a 40-foot ISO tank. The volume of fluids (VOF) method was applied to capture the liquid surface, and a phase change model was used to describe the evaporation phenomenon of hydrogen. The mesh independence analysis and the experimental validation have been made. Under different filling levels, motion statuses, and heat leakage conditions, the variations in pressure and temperature of the tank were investigated. The pressure of 90% filling level case was reduced by 12.09%, compared to the 50% case. Besides, the pressure of the sloshing condition has increased twofold, contrasted with the stationary one, and thermal stratification disappeared. Additionally, 16.67 minutes were taken for the ullage pressure to reach around 1MPa in emergencies of being extremely heated. Some valuable conclusions and suggestions for the transportation of liquid hydrogen arrived. Those could be the references to predict the release time of boil-off hydrogen, and primarily support for gas-releasing control strategies.

Funding source: This work was supported by the Project of Emission Peak and Carbon Neutrality of Jiangsu Province, China (grant number BE2022001-2), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 51905093).

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