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Pneumatic and Optical Characterization and Optimization of Hydrogen Injectors for Internal Combustion Engine Application


To achieve future emission targets for internal combustion engines, the use of hydrogen gas generated by renewable energy sources (known as “green” hydrogen) instead of fossil fuels plays a key role in the development of new combustion-based engine concepts. For new hydrogen engine generations, there are different challenges concerning the injector layout and functionality. Especially when talking about direct hydrogen injection, the key challenge is to ensure a proper mixing between hydrogen and the combustion air—the mixing of gas with a gas is not trivial as shown in this article. In terms of injector functionality, it must be ensured that the requested amount of hydrogen gas needs to be provided in time and, on the other hand, accurately metered to provide an appropriate mixing formation quality inside the combustion chamber. This contribution discusses deep injector analysis techniques with pneumatic and optical approaches for an improved overall understanding of functionality and effects caused by operation with a gaseous fuel. A metering technique for gas flow characterization and, for test simplification, a comparison of hydrogen with helium and nitrogen as possible surrogate gases indicate that helium and nitrogen can act as a substitute for hydrogen in functional testing. Furthermore, this contribution focuses on the usability of helium instead of hydrogen for the determination of spray properties. This is shown by the comparison of spray propagation images that were observed with the Schlieren technique in a pressure vessel proving comparable spray properties. In a next step, the usage of spray-guiding devices to improve the global gas distribution during the injection period is discussed. Here, it turns out that the volume increase does obviously not depend on the nozzle design. Thus, the advantage of multi-hole guiding-devices is based on its flexible gas-jet orientation.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Germany

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