Centralized and Decentralized Electrolysis-based Hydrogen Supply Systems for Road Transportation - A Modeling Study of Current and Future Costs


This work compares the costs of three electrolysis-based hydrogen supply systems for heavy road transportation: a decentralized, off-grid system for hydrogen production from wind and solar power (Dec-Sa); a decentralized system connected to the electricity grid (Dec-Gc); and a centralized grid-connected electrolyzer with hydrogen transported to refueling stations (Cen-Gc). A cost-minimizing optimization model was developed in which the hydrogen production is designed to meet the demand at refueling stations at the lowest total cost for two timeframes: one with current electricity prices and one with estimated future prices. The results show that: For most of the studied geographical regions, Dec-Gc gives the lowest costs of hydrogen delivery (2.2e3.3V/kgH2), while Dec-Sa entails higher hydrogen production costs (2.5e6.7V/kgH2). In addition, the centralized system (Cen-Gc) involves lower costs for production and storage than the grid-connected decentralized system (Dec-Gc), although the additional costs for hydrogen transport increase the total cost (3.5e4.8V/kgH2).

Funding source: We gratefully acknowledge the Norwegian Public Road Administration and the Swedish Electromobility Center for financial support.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Sweden

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