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Spatially-resolved Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities of Power-to-Gas (PtG) in Baden-Württemberg until 2040


The increasing penetration of renewable energies will make new storage technologies indispensable in the future. Power-to-Gas (PtG) is one long-term storage technology that exploits the existing gas infrastructure. However, this technology faces technical, economic, environmental challenges and questions. This contribution presents the final results of a large research project, which attempted to address and provide answers to some of these questions for Baden-Württemberg (south west Germany). Three energy scenarios out to 2040 were defined, one oriented towards the Integrated Energy and Climate Protection Concept of the Federal State Government and two alternatives. Timely-resolved load profiles for gas and electricity for 2015, 2020, 2030 and 2040 have been generated at the level of individual municipalities. The profiles include residential and industrial electrical load, gas required for heating (conventional and current-controlled CHP), as well as gas and electricity demand for mobility. The installation of rooftop PV-plants and wind power plants is projected based on bottom up cost-potential analyses which account for some social acceptance barriers. Residential load profiles are derived for each municipality. In times with negative residual load, the PtG technology could be used to convert electricity into hydrogen or methane. The detailed analysis of four structurally-different model regions delivered quite different results. While in large cities, no negative residual load is likely due to the continuously high demand and strong networks, rural areas with high potentials for renewables could encounter several thousand hours of negative residual load. A cost-effective operation of PtG would only be possible under favorable conditions, including high full load hours, a strong reduction in costs and a technical improvement of efficiency. Whilst these conditions are not expected to appear in the short to mid-term but may occur in the long term in energy systems with very high shares of renewable energy sources

Funding source: This project has been funded by the Baden-Wuerttemberg Research Program Securing a Sustainable Living Environment (BWPLUS) of the Ministry for Environment, Climate and Energy Baden-Württemberg (BWP13021- 13026).
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Germany

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