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Recent Developments in State-of-the-art Hydrogen Energy Technologies – Review of Hydrogen Storage Materials


Hydrogen energy has been assessed as a clean and renewable energy source for future energy demand. For harnessing hydrogen energy to its fullest potential, storage is a key parameter. It is well known that important hydrogen storage characteristics are operating pressure-temperature of hydrogen, hydrogen storage capacity, hydrogen absorption-desorption kinetics and heat transfer in the hydride bed. Each application needs specific properties. Every class of hydrogen storage materials has a different set of hydrogenation characteristics. Hence, it is required to understand the properties of all hydrogen storage materials. The present review is focused on the state-of– the–art hydrogen storage materials including metal hydrides, magnesium-based materials, complex hydride systems, carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks, perovskites and materials and processes based on artificial intelligence. In each category of materials‘ discovery, hydrogen storage mechanism and reaction, crystal structure and recent progress have been discussed in detail. Together with the fundamental synthesis process, latest techniques of material tailoring like nanostructuring, nanoconfinement, catalyzing, alloying and functionalization have also been discussed. Hydrogen energy research has a promising potential to replace fossil fuels from energy uses, especially from automobile sector. In this context, efforts initiated worldwide for clean hydrogen production and its use via fuel cell in vehicles is much awaiting steps towards sustainable energy demand.


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