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Numerical Study on Thermodynamic Coupling Characteristics of Fluid Sloshing in a Liquid Hydrogen Tank for Heavy-Duty Trucks


The large-amplitude sloshing behavior of liquid hydrogen in a tank for heavy-duty trucks may have adverse effects on the safety and stability of driving. With successful application of liquid hydrogen in the field of new energy vehicles, the coupled thermodynamic performance during liquid hydrogen large-amplitude sloshing becomes more attractive. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model is established to simulate the thermodynamic coupling characteristics during liquid hydrogen sloshing in a horizontal tank for heavy-duty trucks. The calculation results obtained by the developed model are in good agreement with experimental data for liquid hydrogen. Based on the established 3D model, the large-amplitude sloshing behavior of liquid hydrogen under extreme acceleration, as well as the effects of acceleration magnitude and duration on liquid hydrogen sloshing, is numerically determined. The simulation results show that under the influence of liquid hydrogen large-amplitude sloshing, the convective heat transfer of fluid in the tank is greatly strengthened, resulting in a decrease in the vapor temperature and an increase in the liquid temperature. In particular, the vapor condensation caused by the sloshing promotes a rapid reduction of pressure in the tank. When the acceleration magnitude is 5 g with a duration of 200 ms, the maximum reduction of ullage pressure is 1550 Pa, and the maximum growth of the force on the right wall is 3.89 kN. Moreover, the acceleration magnitude and duration have a remarkable influence on liquid hydrogen sloshing. With the increase in acceleration magnitude or duration, there is a larger sloshing amplitude for the liquid hydrogen. When the duration of acceleration is 200 ms, compared with the situation at the acceleration magnitude of 5 g, the maximum reductions of ullage pressure decrease by 9.46% and 55.02%, and the maximum growth of forces on the right wall decrease by 80.57% and 99.53%, respectively, at 2 g and 0.5 g. Additionally, when the acceleration magnitude is 5 g, in contrast with the situation at a duration of acceleration of 200 ms, the maximum-ullage-pressure drops decrease by 8.17% and 21.62%, and the maximum increase in forces on the right wall decrease by 71.80% and 88.63%, at 100 ms and 50 ms, respectively. These results can provide a reference to the safety design of horizontal liquid hydrogen tanks for heavy-duty trucks.

Funding source: This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (52276018), National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFB1504900), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2021T140538).
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

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