Skip to content

The Role of Liquid Hydrogen in Integrated Energy Systems - A Case Study for Germany


Hydrogen (H2) is expected to be a key building block in future greenhouse gas neutral energy systems. This study investigates the role of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a national, greenhouse gas-neutral energy supply system for Germany in 2045. The integrated energy system model suite ETHOS is extended by LH2 demand profiles in the sectors aviation, mobility, and chemical industry and means of LH2 transportation via inland vessel, rail, and truck. This case study demonstrates that the type of hydrogen demand (liquid or gaseous) can strongly affect the cost-optimal design of the future energy system. When LH2 demand is introduced to the energy system, LH2 import, transportation, and production grow in importance. This decreases the need for gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipelines and affects the location of H2 production plants. When identifying no-regret measures, it must be considered, that the largest H2 consumers are the ones with the highest readiness to use LH2.

Funding source: This work was supported by the Helmholtz Association under the program “Energy System Design.”
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Germany

Article metrics loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error