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Climate Change Mitigation Potentials of on Grid-connected Power-to-X Fuels and Advanced Biofuels for the European Maritime Transport

Abstract

This study proposes a country-based life-cycle assessment (LCA) of several conversion pathways related 10 to both on grid-connected Power-to-X (PtX) fuels and advanced biofuel production for maritime transport 11 in Europe. We estimate the biomass resource availability (both agricultural and forest residues and 12 second-generation energy crops from abandoned cropland), electricity mix, and a future-oriented 13 prospective LCA to assess how future climate change mitigation policies influence the results. Our results 14 indicate that the potential of PtX fuels to achieve well-to-wake greenhouse gas intensities lower than 15 those of fossil fuels is limited to countries with a carbon intensity of the electricity mix below 100 gCO2eq kWh-1 16 . The more ambitious FuelEU Maritime goal could be achieved with PtX only if connected to electricity sources below ca. 17 gCO2eq kWh-1 17 which can become possible for most of the national 18 electricity mix in Europe by 2050 if renewable energy sources will become deployed at large scales. For 19 drop-in and hydrogen-based biofuels, biomass residues have a higher potential to reduce emissions than 20 dedicated energy crops. In Europe, the potentials of energy supply from all renewable and low-carbon 21 fuels (RLFs) range from 32-149% of the current annual fuel consumption in European maritime transport. 22 The full deployment of RLFs with carbon capture and storage technologies could mitigate up to 184% of 23 the current well-to-wake shipping emissions in Europe. Overall, our study highlights how the strategic use 24 of both hydrogen-based biofuels and PtX fuels can contribute to the climate mitigation targetsfor present 25 and future scenarios of European maritime transport.

Funding source: This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway through the projects: Bio4-7 Seas (302276), Bio4Fuels (257622), HYDROGENi (333118), and BEST (288047). The authors are also thankful to Romain Sacchi for the support with premise (PRospective EnvironMental Impact AsSEssment) and to the Industrial Ecology Digital Lab (NTNU) with software use.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Norway
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/content/journal4830
2023-07-01
2024-02-21
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal4830
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