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Grid Ancillary Services using Electrolyzer-based Power-to-Gas Systems with Increasing Renewable Penetration

Abstract

Increasing penetrations of renewable-based generation have led to a decrease in the bulk power system inertia and an increase in intermittency and uncertainty in generation. Energy storage is considered to be an important factor to help manage renewable energy generation at greater penetrations. Hydrogen is a viable long-term storage alternative. This paper analyzes and presents use cases for leveraging electrolyzer-based power-to-gas systems for electric grid support. The paper also discusses some grid services that may favor the use of hydrogenbased storage over other forms such as battery energy storage. Real-time controls are developed, implemented and demonstrated using a power-hardware-in-the-loop(PHIL) setup with a 225-kW proton-exchange-membrane electrolyzer stack. These controls demonstrate frequency and voltage support for the grid for different levels of renewable penetration (0%, 25%, and 50%). A comparison of the results shows the changes in respective frequencies and voltages as seen as different buses as a result of support from the electrolyzers and notes the impact on hydrogen production as a result of grid support. Finally, the paper discusses the practical nuances of implementing the tests with physical hardware, such as inverter/electrolyzer efficiency, as well as the related constraints and opportunities.

Funding source: This work was authored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, operated by Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Funding provided by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: United States
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/content/journal5111
2023-11-18
2024-02-22
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal5111
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