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Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Salt Caverns and Deep Aquifers Versus Demand for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study of Poland


Geological structures in deep aquifers and salt caverns can play an important role in large-scale hydrogen storage. However, more work needs to be done to address the hydrogen storage demand for zero-emission energy systems. Thus the aim of the article is to present the demand for hydrogen storage expressed in the number of salt caverns in bedded rock salt deposits and salt domes or the number of structures in deep aquifers. The analysis considers minimum and maximum hydrogen demand cases depending on future energy system configurations in 2050. The method used included the estimation of the storage capacity of salt caverns in bedded rock salt deposits and salt domes and selected structures in deep aquifers. An estimation showed a large hydrogen storage potential of geological structures. In the case of analyzed bedded rock salt deposits and salt domes, the average storage capacity per cavern is 0.05–0.09 TWhH2 and 0.06–0.20 TWhH2, respectively. Hydrogen storage capacity in analyzed deep aquifers ranges from 0.016 to 4.46 TWhH2. These values indicate that in the case of the upper bound for storage demand, there is a need for the 62 to 514 caverns, depending on considered bedded rock salt deposits and salt domes or the 9 largest analyzed structures in deep aquifers. The results obtained are relevant to the discussion on the global hydrogen economy, and the methodology can be used for similar considerations in other countries.

Funding source: Part of the work and results in this paper stem from the “Hystories” project which received funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (now Clean Hydrogen Partnership) under grant agreement No 101007176. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and Hydrogen Europe and Hydrogen Europe Research.
Countries: Germany ; Poland

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