Skip to content

Conversion of a Small-Size Passenger Car to Hydrogen Fueling: 0D/1D Simulation of EGR and Related Flow Limitations


Hydrogen is seen as a prime choice for complete replacement of gasoline so as to achieve zero-emissions energy and mobility. Combining the use of this alternative fuel with a circular economy approach for giving new life to the existing fleet of passenger cars ensures further benefits in terms of cost competitiveness. Transforming spark ignition (SI) engines to H2 power requires relatively minor changes and limited added components. Within this framework, the conversion of a small-size passenger car to hydrogen fueling was evaluated based on 0D/1D simulation. One of the methods to improve efficiency is to apply exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which also lowers NOx emissions. Therefore, the previous version of the quasi-dimensional model was modified to include EGR and its effects on combustion. A dedicated laminar flame speed model was implemented for the specific properties of hydrogen, and a purpose-built sub-routine was implemented to correctly model the effects of residual gas at the start of combustion. Simulations were performed in several operating points representative of urban and highway driving. One of the main conclusions was that highpressure recirculation was severely limited by the minimum flow requirements of the compressor. Low-pressure EGR ensured wider applicability and significant improvement of efficiency, especially during partial-load operation specific to urban use. Another benefit of recirculation was that pressure rise rates were predicted to be more contained and closer to the values expected for gasoline fueling. This was possible due to the high tolerance of H2 to the presence of residual gas.

Funding source: The authors from STEMS-CNR acknowledge the funding received within the SAYH2 PoC project financed by the European Union—NextGenerationEU (National Sustainable Mobility Center CN00000023, Italian Ministry of University and Research Decree n. 1033—17/06/2022, Spoke 12).
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Italy

Article metrics loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error