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Optimized Design of a H2-Powered Moped for Urban Mobility


Micro-mobility plays an increasingly important role in the current energy transition thanks to its low energy consumption and reduced contribution to urban congestion. In this scenario, fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles have several advantages over state-of-the-art battery electric vehicles, such as increased driving ranges and reduced recharge times. In this paper, we study the conversion of a commercial electric moped (Askoll eS3 ®) into a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle by finding the optimal design of the components through an optimization methodology based on backward dynamic programming. This optimal design and operation strategy can also be implemented with a rulesbased approach. The results show that a system composed of a 1 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell, a 2000 Sl metal hydride hydrogen tank, and a 240 Wh buffer battery can cover the same driving range as the batteries in an electric moped (119 km). Such a hybrid system occupies considerably less volume (almost 40 L) and has a negligibly higher mass. The free volume can be used to extend the driving range up to almost three times the nominal value. Moreover, by using a high-pressure composite tank, it is possible to increase the mass energy density of the onboard energy storage (although compression can require up to 10% of the hydrogen’s chemical energy). The fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle can be recharged with green hydrogen that is locally produced. In detail, we analyze a residential scenario and a shared mobility scenario in the small Italian city of Viterbo.

Funding source: This research was funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, MIUR, as a Project of National Interest, PRIN 2017F4S2L3. Also, the research was funded as project ECS 0000024 Rome Technopole, CUP B83C22002820006, National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) Mission 4 Component 2 Investment 1.5, funded by the European Union—NextGenerationEU.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Italy

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