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Comparison of Numerical and Algebraic Models of Low and High Pressure Hydrogen Jet Flows with Ideal and Real Gas Models


Hydrogen transportation systems require very high pressure hydrogen storage containers to enable sufficient vehicle range for practical use. Current proposed designs have pressures up to 70 MPa with leakage due to damage or deterioration at such high pressures a great safety concern. Accurate models are needed to predict the flammability envelopes around such leaks which rapidly vary with time. This paper compares CFD predictions of jet flows for low pressure jets with predictions using the integral turbulent buoyant jet model. The results show that the CFD model predicts less entrainment and that the turbulent Schmidt number should be smaller, with 0.55 giving better results. Then, CFD predictions for very high pressure flows are compared with analytical models for choked flows that generate underexpanded jets into the ambient to evaluate the effects of the model assumptions and the effects of real exit geometries. Real gas effects are shown to accelerate the blowdown process and that real flow effects in the CFD model slow the flow rate and increase the exit temperature.

Related subjects: Safety

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