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Characteristic of Cryogenic Hydrogen Flames from High-aspect Ratio Nozzles


Unintentional leaks at hydrogen fuelling stations have the potential to form hydrogen jet flames, which pose a risk to people and infrastructure. The heat flux from these jet flames are often used to develop separation distances between hydrogen components and buildings, lot-lines, etc. The heat flux and visible flame length is well understood for releases from round nozzles, but real unintended releases would be expected to be be higher aspect-ratio cracks. In this work, we measured the visible flame length and heat-flux characteristics of cryogenic hydrogen flames from high-aspect ratio nozzles. We compare this data to flames of both cryogenic and compressed hydrogen from round nozzles. The aspect ratio of the release does not affect the flame length or heat flux significantly, for a given mass flow under the range of conditions studied. The engineering correlations presented in this work that enable the prediction of flame length and heat flux can be used to assess risk at hydrogen fuelling stations with liquid hydrogen and develop science-based separation distances for these stations.

Related subjects: Safety
Countries: United States

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Characteristic of cryogenic hydrogen flames from high-aspect ratio nozzles

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