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Optimal Design and Operation of Integrated Wind-hydrogen-electricity Networks for Decarbonising the Domestic Transport Sector in Great Britain


This paper presents the optimal design and operation of integrated wind-hydrogen-electricity networks using the general mixed integer linear programming energy network model, STeMES (Samsatli and Samsatli, 2015). The network comprises: wind turbines; electrolysers, fuel cells, compressors and expanders; pressurised vessels and underground storage for hydrogen storage; hydrogen pipelines and electricity overhead/underground transmission lines; and fuelling stations and distribution pipelines.
The spatial distribution and temporal variability of energy demands and wind availability were considered in detail in the model. The suitable sites for wind turbines were identified using GIS, by applying a total of 10 technical and environmental constraints (buffer distances from urban areas, rivers, roads, airports, woodland and so on), and used to determine the maximum number of new wind turbines that can be installed in each zone.
The objective is the minimisation of the total cost of the network, subject to satisfying all of the demands of the domestic transport sector in Great Britain. The model simultaneously determines the optimal number, size and location of each technology, whether to transmit the energy as electricity or hydrogen, the structure of the transmission network, the hourly operation of each technology and so on. The cost of distribution was estimated from the number of fuelling stations and length of the distribution pipelines, which were determined from the demand density at the 1 km level.
Results indicate that all of Britain's domestic transport demand can be met by on-shore wind through appropriately designed and operated hydrogen-electricity networks. Within the set of technologies considered, the optimal solution is: to build a hydrogen pipeline network in the south of England and Wales; to supply the Midlands and Greater London with hydrogen from the pipeline network alone; to use Humbly Grove underground storage for seasonal storage and pressurised vessels at different locations for hourly balancing as well as seasonal storage; for Northern Wales, Northern England and Scotland to be self-sufficient, generating and storing all of the hydrogen locally. These results may change with the inclusion of more technologies, such as electricity storage and electric vehicles.

Related subjects: Production & Supply Chain
Countries: United Kingdom

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