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Ammonia as Effective Hydrogen Storage: A Review on Production, Storage and Utilization

Abstract

Ammonia is considered to be a potential medium for hydrogen storage, facilitating CO2-free energy systems in the future. Its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure and stability for long-term storage are among the beneficial characteristics of ammonia for hydrogen storage. Furthermore, ammonia is also considered safe due to its high auto ignition temperature, low condensation pressure and lower gas density than air. Ammonia can be produced from many different types of primary energy sources, including renewables, fossil fuels and surplus energy (especially surplus electricity from the grid). In the utilization site, the energy from ammonia can be harvested directly as fuel or initially decomposed to hydrogen for many options of hydrogen utilization. This review describes several potential technologies, in current conditions and in the future, for ammonia production, storage and utilization. Ammonia production includes the currently adopted Haber–Bosch, electrochemical and thermochemical cycle processes. Furthermore, in this study, the utilization of ammonia is focused mainly on the possible direct utilization of ammonia due to its higher total energy efficiency, covering the internal combustion engine, combustion for gas turbines and the direct ammonia fuel cell. Ammonia decomposition is also described, in order to give a glance at its progress and problems. Finally, challenges and recommendations are also given toward the further development of the utilization of ammonia for hydrogen storage.

Funding source: This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI, Grant Number 19K04211. A.T.W. would like to acknowledge the support of the World Class Research Program, the Ministry of Research and the Technology/National Agency for Research and Innovation of the Republic of Indonesia in the fiscal year 2020.
Countries: Indonesia ; Japan
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/content/journal2550
2020-06-12
2022-07-05
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal2550
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