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Technical and Economic Analysis of One-Stop Charging Stations for Battery and Fuel Cell EV with Renewable Energy Sources

Abstract

Currently, most of the vehicles make use of fossil fuels for operations, resulting in one of the largest sources of carbon dioxide emissions. The need to cut our dependency on these fossil fuels has led to an increased use of renewable energy sources (RESs) for mobility purposes. A technical and economic analysis of a one-stop charging station for battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) is investigated in this paper. The hybrid optimization model for electric renewables (HOMER) software and the heavy-duty refueling station analysis model (HDRSAM) are used to conduct the case study for a one-stop charging station at Technical University of Denmark (DTU)-Risø campus. Using HOMER, a total of 42 charging station scenarios are analyzed by considering two systems (a grid-connected system and an off-grid connected system). For each system three different charging station designs (design A-hydrogen load; design B-an electrical load, and design C-an integrated system consisting of both hydrogen and electrical load) are set up for analysis. Furthermore, seven potential wind turbines with different capacity are selected from HOMER database for each system. Using HDRSAM, a total 18 scenarios are analyzed with variation in hydrogen delivery option, production volume, hydrogen dispensing option and hydrogen dispensing option. The optimal solution from HOMER for a lifespan of twenty-five years is integrated into design C with the grid-connected system whose cost was $986,065. For HDRSAM, the optimal solution design consists of tube trailer as hydrogen delivery with cascade dispensing option at 350 bar together with high production volume and the cost of the system was $452,148. The results from the two simulation tools are integrated and the overall cost of the one-stop charging station is achieved which was $2,833,465. The analysis demonstrated that the one-stop charging station with a grid connection is able to fulfil the charging demand cost-effectively and environmentally friendly for an integrated energy system with RESs in the investigated locations.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
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/content/journal2645
2020-06-03
2021-12-02
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal2645
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