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Optimal Sizing of Storage Elements for a Vehicle Based on Fuel Cells, Supercapacitors, and Batteries


To achieve a vehicle-efficient energy management system, an architecture composed of a PEM fuel cell as the main energy source and a hybrid storage system based on battery banks and supercapacitors is proposed. This paper introduces a methodology for the optimal component sizing aiming at minimizing the total cost, achieving a cheaper system that can achieve the requirements of the speed profiles. The chosen vehicle is an urban transport bus, which must meet the Buenos Aires Driving Cycle, and the Manhattan Driving Cycle. The combination of batteries and supercapacitors allows a better response to the vehicle’s power demand, since it combines the high energy density of the batteries with the high power density of the supercapacitors, allowing the best absorption of energy coming from braking. In this way, we address the rapid changes in power without reducing the global efficiency of the system. Optimum use of storage systems and fuel cell is analyzed through dynamic programming.

Funding source: This work has been partially funded by the Spanish national projects MICAPEM (ref. DPI2015-69286-C3-2-R, MINECO/FEDER) and SCAV (ref. DPI2017-88403-R MINECO/FEDER). This work is supported by the Spanish State Research Agencythrough the María de Maeztu Seal of Excellence to IRI (MDM-2016-0656). This work is partially funded by AGAUR of Generalitat de Catalunya through the Advanced Control Systems (SAC) group grant (2017 SGR 482).
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Spain

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