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Detection of Contaminants in Hydrogen Fuel for Fuel Cell Electrical Vehicles with Sensors—Available Technology, Testing Protocols and Implementation Challenges


Europe’s low-carbon energy policy favors a greater use of fuel cells and technologies based on hydrogen used as a fuel. Hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refueling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards. Currently, the quality control process is performed by offline analysis of the hydrogen fuel. It is, however, beneficial to continuously monitor at least some of the contaminants onsite using chemical sensors. For hydrogen quality control with regard to contaminants, high sensitivity, integration parameters, and low cost are the most important requirements. In this study, we have reviewed the existing sensor technologies to detect contaminants in hydrogen, then discussed the implementation of sensors at a hydrogen refueling stations, described the state-of-art in protocols to perform assessment of these sensor technologies, and, finally, identified the gaps and needs in these areas. It was clear that sensors are not yet commercially available for all gaseous contaminants mentioned in ISO14687:2019. The development of standardized testing protocols is required to go hand in hand with the development of chemical sensors for this application following a similar approach to the one undertaken for air sensors.

Funding source: This research was co-funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Participating States, grant number «19ENG04—Metrology for hydrogen vehicles 2».
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

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