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Decentral Hydrogen

Abstract

This concept study extends the power-to-gas approach to small combined heat and power devices in buildings that alternately operate fuel cells and electrolysis. While the heat is used to replace existing fossil heaters on-site, the power is either fed into the grid or consumed via heatcoupled electrolysis to balance the grid power at the nearest grid node. In detail, the power demand of Germany is simulated as a snapshot for 2030 with 100% renewable sourcing. The standard load profile is supplemented with additional loads from 100% electric heat pumps, 100% electric cars, and a fully electrified industry. The renewable power is then scaled up to match this demand with historic hourly yield data from 2018/2019. An optimal mix of photovoltaics, wind, biomass and hydropower is calculated in respect to estimated costs in 2030. Hydrogen has recently entered a large number of national energy roadmaps worldwide. However, most of them address the demands of heavy industry and heavy transport, which are more difficult to electrify. Hydrogen is understood to be a substitute for fossil fuels, which would be continuously imported from non-industrialized countries. This paper focuses on hydrogen as a storage technology in an all-electric system. The target is to model the most cost-effective end-to-end use of local renewable energies, including excess hydrogen for the industry. The on-site heat coupling will be the principal argument for decentralisation. Essentially, it flattens the future peak from massive usage of electric heat pumps during cold periods. However, transition speed will either push the industry or the prosumer approach in front. Batteries are tried out as supplementary components for short-term storage, due to their higher round trip efficiencies. Switching the gas net to hydrogen is considered as an alternative to overcome the slow power grid expansions. Further decentral measures are examined in respect to system costs.

Related subjects: Policy & Socio-Economics
Countries: Germany
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/content/journal3392
2022-04-12
2022-05-29
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal3392
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