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Safety of Hydrogen Storage and Transportation: An Overview on Mechanisms, Techniques, and Challenges


The extensive usage of fossil fuels has caused significant environmental pollution, climate change and energy crises. The significant advantages of hydrogen, such as cleanliness, high efficiency, and a wide range of sources, make it quite promising. Hydrogen is prone to material damage, which may lead to leakage. High-pressure leaking hydrogen is highly susceptible to spontaneous combustion due to its combustion characteristics, which may cause jet fire or explosion accidents, resulting in serious casualties and property damage. This paper presents a detailed review of the research progress on hydrogen leak diffusion characteristics, leak spontaneous combustion mechanisms and material hydrogen damage mechanisms from the perspectives of theoretical analysis, experiments and numerical simulations. This review points out that although a large number of research results have been obtained on the safety characteristics of hydrogen, there are still some deficiencies and limitations. Further research topics are clarified, such as further optimizing the kinetic mechanism of the high-pressure hydrogen leakage reaction and turbulence model, exploring the expansion and dilution law of hydrogen clouds after liquid hydrogen flooding, further studying the spontaneous combustion mechanism of leaked hydrogen and the interaction between mechanisms, and investigating the synergistic damage effect of hydrogen and other components on materials. The leakage spontaneous combustion process in open space, the development process of the bidirectional effect of hydrogen jet fuel and crack growth under the impact of high-pressure hydrogen jet fuel on the material may need to be explored next.

Funding source: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51874340 and No. 52074341 and No. 52104071).
Related subjects: Safety

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