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Hydrogen Leakage Simulation and Risk Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Station in China


Hydrogen is a renewable energy source with various features, clean, carbon-free, high energy density, which is being recognized internationally as a “future energy.” The US, the EU, Japan, South Korea, China, and other countries or regions are gradually clarifying the development position of hydrogen. The rapid development of the hydrogen energy industry requires more hydrogenation infrastructure to meet the hydrogenation need of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Nevertheless, due to the frequent occurrence of hydrogen infrastructure accidents, their safety has become an obstacle to large-scale construction. This paper analyzed five sizes (diameters of 0.068 mm, 0.215 mm, 0.68 mm, 2.15 mm, and 6.8 mm) of hydrogen leakage in the hydrogen fueling station using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) and HyRAM software. The results show that unignited leaks occur most frequently; leaks caused by flanges, valves, instruments, compressors, and filters occur more frequently; and the risk indicator of thermal radiation accident and structure collapse accident caused by over-pressure exceeds the Chinese individual acceptable risk standard and the risk indicator of a thermal radiation accident and head impact accident caused by overpressure is below the Chinese standard. On the other hand, we simulated the consequences of hydrogen leak from the 45 MPa hydrogen storage vessels by the physic module of HyRAM and obtained the ranges of plume dispersion, jet fire, radiative heat flux, and unconfined overpressure. We suggest targeted preventive measures and safety distance to provide references for hydrogen fueling stations’ safe construction and operation.

Funding source: This study has been supported by the Research Fund of Chinese Academy of Engineering (Grant No. 2021-JZ-03).
Related subjects: Safety

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