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Hydrogen Storage in Depleted Gas Reservoirs: A Comprehensive Review


Hydrogen future depends on large-scale storage, which can be provided by geological formations (such as caverns, aquifers, and depleted oil and gas reservoirs) to handle demand and supply changes, a typical hysteresis of most renewable energy sources. Amongst them, depleted natural gas reservoirs are the most cost-effective and secure solutions due to their wide geographic distribution, proven surface facilities, and less ambiguous site evaluation. They also require less cushion gas as the native residual gases serve as a buffer for pressure maintenance during storage. However, there is a lack of thorough understanding of this technology. This work aims to provide a comprehensive insight and technical outlook into hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs. It briefly discusses the operating and potential facilities, case studies, and the thermophysical and petrophysical properties of storage and withdrawal capacity, gas immobilization, and efficient gas containment. Furthermore, a comparative approach to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide with respect to well integrity during gas storage has been highlighted. A summary of the key findings, challenges, and prospects has also been reported. Based on the review, hydrodynamics, geochemical, and microbial factors are the subsurface’s principal promoters of hydrogen losses. The injection strategy, reservoir features, quality, and operational parameters significantly impact gas storage in depleted reservoirs. Future works (experimental and simulation) were recommended to focus on the hydrodynamics and geomechanics aspects related to migration, mixing, and dispersion for improved recovery. Overall, this review provides a streamlined insight into hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs.

Funding source: The corresponding author would like to thank the College of Petroleum and Geosciences at KFUPM for providing the Start-Up Fund - SF19005. Stefan Iglauer would like to thank the Australian Research Council (ARC grant DP220102907) for funding.
Countries: Australia ; Saudi Arabia

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