Enhancement of Microgrid Frequency Stability Based on the Combined Power-to-Hydrogen-to-Power Technology under High Penetration Renewable Units


Recently, with the large-scale integration of renewable energy sources into microgrid (µGs) power electronics, distributed energy systems have gained popularity. However, low inertia reduces system frequency stability and anti-disturbance capabilities, exposing power quality to intermittency and uncertainty in photovoltaics or wind turbines. To ensure system stability, the virtual inertia control (VIC) is presented. This paper proposes two solutions to overcome the low inertia problem and the surplus in capacities resulting from renewable energy sources. The first solution employs superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), which can be deemed as an efficient solution for damping the frequency oscillations. Therefore, in this work, SMES that is managed by a simple proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) controller is utilized to overcome the low inertia. In the second solution, the hydrogen storage system is employed to maintain the stability of the microgrid by storing surplus power generated by renewable energy sources (RESs). Power-to-Power is a method of storing excess renewable energy as chemical energy in the form of hydrogen. Hydrogen can be utilized locally or delivered to a consumption node. The proposed µG operation demonstrates that the integration of the photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines (WTs), diesel engine generator (DEG), electrolyzer, micro gas turbine (µGT), and SMES is adequate to fulfill the load requirements under transient operating circumstances such as a low and high PV output power as well as to adapt to sudden changes in the load demand. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes is confirmed using real irradiance data (Benban City, Egypt) using a MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Funding source: The work in this paper was supported, in part, by fund #FRG20-L-E112 and the Open Access Program from the American University of Sharjah.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

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