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Design and Optimization of a Type-C Tank for Liquid Hydrogen Marine Transport

Abstract

As one of the most promising renewable energy sources, hydrogen has the excellent environmental benefit of producing zero emissions. A key technical challenge in using hydrogen across sectors is placed on its storage technology. The storage temperature of liquid hydrogen (20 K, or 253 C) is close to absolute zero so the storage materials and the insulation layers are subjected to extremely stringent requirements against the cryogenic behaviour of the medium. In this context, this research proposed to design a large liquid hydrogen type-C tank with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institution) type 316 L stainless steel as the metal barrier, using Vapor-Cooled Shield (VCS) and Rigid Polyurethane Foams (RPF) as the insulation layer. A parametric study on the design of the insulation layer was carried out by establishing a thermodynamic model. The effects of VCS location on heat ingress to the liquid hydrogen transport tank and insulation temperature distribution were investigated, and the optimal location of the VCS in the insulation was identified. Research outcomes finally suggest two optimal design schemes: (1) when the thickness of the insulation layer is determined, Self-evaporation Vapor-Cooled Shield (SVCS) and Forcedevaporation Vapor-Cooled Shield (FVCS) can reduce heat transfer by 47.84% and 85.86% respectively; (2) when the liquid hydrogen evaporation capacity is determined, SVCS and FVCS can reduce the thickness of the insulation layer by 50% and 67.93% respectively.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
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/content/journal4775
2023-05-09
2024-06-14
/content/journal4775
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