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Influence of Longitudinal Wind on Hydrogen Leakage and Hydrogen Concentration Sensor Layout of Fuel Cell Vehicles


Hydrogen has the physical and chemical characteristics of being flammable, explosive and prone to leakage, and its safety is the main issue faced by the promotion of hydrogen as an energy source. The most common scene in vehicle application is the longitudinal wind generated by driving, and the original position of hydrogen concentration sensors (HCSs) did not consider the influence of longitudinal wind on the hydrogen leakage trajectory. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR CCM 2021.1 is used to simulate the hydrogen leakage and diffusion trajectories of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) at five different leakage locations the longitudinal wind speeds of 0 km/h, 37.18 km/h and 114 km/h, and it is concluded that longitudinal wind prolongs the diffusion time of hydrogen to the headspace and reduces the coverage area of hydrogen in the headspace with a decrease of 81.35%. In order to achieve a good detection effect of fuel cell vehicles within the longitudinal wind scene, based on the simulated hydrogen concentration–time matrix, the scene clustering method based on vector similarity evaluation was used to reduce the leakage scene set by 33%. Then, the layout position of HCSs was optimized according to the proposed multi-scene full coverage response time minimization model, and the response time was reduced from 5 s to 1 s.

Funding source: This research is supported by Weifang University of Science and Technology High-level Talent Research Start-up Fund Project KJRC2023001, the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province with ZR2019MEE029 and Shandong Jiaotong University Graduate Science and Technology Innovation Project with 2023YK004.
Related subjects: Safety

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