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Alternatives for Transport, Storage in Port and Bunkering Systems for Offshore Energy to Green Hydrogen


Offshore electricity production, mainly by wind turbines, and, eventually, floating PV, is expected to increase renewable energy generation and their dispatchability. In this sense, a significant part of this offshore electricity would be directly used for hydrogen generation. The integration of offshore energy production into the hydrogen economy is of paramount importance for both the techno-economic viability of offshore energy generation and the hydrogen economy. An analysis of this integration is presented. The analysis includes a discussion about the current state of the art of hydrogen pipelines and subsea cables, as well as the storage and bunkering system that is needed on shore to deliver hydrogen and derivatives. This analysis extends the scope of most of the previous works that consider port-to-port transport, while we report offshore to port. Such storage and bunkering will allow access to local and continental energy networks, as well as to integrate offshore facilities for the delivery of decarbonized fuel for the maritime sector. The results of such state of the art suggest that the main options for the transport of offshore energy for the production of hydrogen and hydrogenated vectors are through direct electricity transport by subsea cables to produce hydrogen onshore, or hydrogen transport by subsea pipeline. A parametric analysis of both alternatives, focused on cost estimates of each infrastructure (cable/pipeline) and shipping has been carried out versus the total amount of energy to transport and distance to shore. For low capacity (100 GWh/y), an electric subsea cable is the best option. For high-capacity renewable offshore plants (TWh/y), pipelines start to be competitive for distances above approx. 750 km. Cost is highly dependent on the distance to land, ranging from 35 to 200 USD/MWh.

Funding source: This research was funded by the CDTI (Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology Ministry of Science and Innovation) of Spain, grant number MIG-20201001, project “Generación, almacenamiento y distribución de hidrógeno verde offshore”.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Spain

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