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Internal Combustion Engines and Carbon-Neutral Fuels: A Perspective on Emission Neutrality in the European Union


Nowadays, there is an intense debate in the European Union (EU) regarding the limits to achieve the European Green Deal, to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent in the world. In this context, there are also different opinions about the role that thermal engines should play. Furhermore, there is no clear proposal regarding the possibilities of the use of green hydrogen in the transport decarbonization process, even though it should be a key element. Thus, there are still no precise guidelines regarding the role of green hydrogen, with it being exclusively used as a raw material to produce E-fuels. This review aims to evaluate the possibilities of applying the different alternative technologies available to successfully complete the process already underway to achieve Climate Neutrality by about 2050, depending on the maturity of the technologies currently available, and those anticipated to be available in the coming decades.

Funding source: This work was funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 (project PID2019-104953RB100), MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, Unión Europea “NextGenerationEU/PRTR” (project TED2021-132224B-I00), and Junta de Andalucía—Proyectos de Excelencia—Ref. P18-RT-4822 and Fondos FEDER.
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
Countries: Spain

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