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Levelised Cost of Transmission Comparison for Green Hydrogen and Ammonia in New-build Offshore Energy Infrastructure: Pipelines, Tankers, and HVDC


As the global market develops for green hydrogen and ammonia derived from renewable electricity, the bulk transmission of hydrogen and ammonia from production areas to demand-intensive consumption areas will increase. Repurposing existing infrastructure may be economically and technically feasible, but increases in supply and demand will necessitate new developments. Bulk transmission of hydrogen and ammonia may be effected by dedicated pipelines or liquefied fuel tankers. Transmission of electricity using HVDC lines to directly power electrolysers producing hydrogen near the demand markets is another option. This paper presents and validates detailed cost models for newly-built dedicated offshore transmission methods for green hydrogen and ammonia and carries out a techno-economic comparison over a range of transmission distances and production volumes. New pipelines are economical for short distances, while new HVDC interconnectors are suited to medium-large transmission capacities over a wide range of distances, and liquefied gas tankers are best for long distances.

Funding source: The research leading to this paper is supported through the H-Wind project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under grant number 12/RC/2302, and industry partners DP Energy, ESB, Equinor ASA, and Gas Networks Ireland.
Countries: Brazil ; Ireland

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