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Ammonia-hydrogen Combustion in a Swirl Burner with Reduction of NOx Emissions


Recently, ammonia is being considered for fuelling gas turbines as a new sustainable source. It can undergo thermal cracking producing nitrogen, hydrogen and unburned ammonia, thus enabling the use of these chemicals most efficiently for combustion purposes. Ammonia being carbon-free may allow the transition towards a hydrogen economy. However, one of the main constraints of this fuelling technique is that although the combustion of ammonia produces no CO2, there is a large NOx proportion of emissions using this fuel. In this work, cracked ammonia obtained from a modified combustion rig designed at Cardiff University was used to simulate a swirl burner under preheating conditions via heat exchangers. The primary objective of this system is to find new ways for the reduction of NOx emissions by injecting various amounts of ammonia/hydrogen at different mixtures downstream of the primary flame zone. The amount of injected ammonia/hydrogen mixture (X) taken from the thermal cracking system was ranged from 0%-4% (vol %) of the total available fuel in the system while the remaining gas (1.00-X) was then employed as primary fuel into the burner. CHEMKIN- PRO calculations were conducted by employing a novel chemical reaction code developed at Cardiff University to achieve the goal of this paper. The predictions were performed under low pressure and rich conditions with an equivalence ratio ϕ =1.2 in a swirl burner previously characterised at output powers of ~10 kW. Ammonia and hydrogen blends were evaluated from 50% NH3 (vol %) with the remaining gas as hydrogen, continuing in steps of 10% (vol %) NH3 increments. Results showed that the minimum unburned ammonia and higher flame temperature were achieved at 60%-40% NH3-H2 when compared to other blends but with high NO emissions. These NO levels were reduced by injecting a small amount of NH3/H2 mixture (X=4 %) downstream the primary zone in a generated circulations promoted by the new design of the burner which affecting the residence time hence reducing the NO emission in the exhaust gas.

Related subjects: Production & Supply Chain
Countries: Iraq ; United Kingdom

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