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On Numerical Simulation of Liquefied and Gaseous Hydrogen Releases at Large Scales


The large eddy simulation (LES) model developed at the University of Ulster has been applied to simulate releases of 5.11 m3 liquefied hydrogen (LH2) in open atmosphere and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in 20-m3 closed vessel. The simulations of a spill of liquefied hydrogen confirmed the advantage of LES application to reproduce experimentally observed eddy structure of hydrogen-air cloud. The inclination angle of simulated cloud is close to experimentally reported 300. The processes of two phase hydrogen release and heat transfer were simplified by inflow of gaseous hydrogen with temperature 20 K equal to boiling point. It is shown that difference in inflow conditions, geometry and grid resolution affects simulation results. It is suggested that phenomenon of air condensationevaporation in the cloud in temperature range 20-90 K should be accounted for in future. The simulations reproduced well experimental data on GH2 release and transport in 20-m3 vessel during 250 min including a phenomenon of hydrogen concentration growth at the bottom of the vessel. Higher experimental hydrogen concentration at the bottom is assumed to be due to non-uniformity of temperature of vessel walls generating additional convection. The comparison of convective and diffusion terms in Navie-Stokes equations has revealed that a value of convective term is more than order of magnitude prevail over a value of turbulent diffusion term. It is assumed that the hydrogen transport to the bottom of the vessel is driven by the remaining chaotic flow velocities superimposed on stratified hydrogen concentration field. Further experiments and simulations with higher accuracy have to be performed to confirm this phenomenon. It has been demonstrated that hydrogen-air mixture became stratified in about 1 min after release was completed. However, one-dimensional models are seen not capable to reproduce slow transport of hydrogen during long period of time characteristic for scenarios such as leakage in a garage.

Related subjects: Safety
Countries: France ; United Kingdom

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