Effect of Heat Transfer through the Release of Pipe on Simulations of Cryogenic Hydrogen Jet Fires and Hazard Distances


Jet flames originated by cryo-compressed ignited hydrogen releases can cause life-threatening conditions in their surroundings. Validated models are needed to accurately predict thermal hazards from a jet fire. Numerical simulations of cryogenic hydrogen flow in the release pipe are performed to assess the effect of heat transfer through the pipe walls on jet parameters. Notional nozzle exit diameter is calculated based on the simulated real nozzle parameters and used in CFD simulations as a boundary condition to model jet fires. The CFD model was previously validated against experiments with vertical cryogenic hydrogen jet fires with release pressures up to 0.5 MPa (abs), release diameter 1.25 mm and temperatures as low as 50 K. This study validates the CFD model in a wider domain of experimental release conditions - horizontal cryogenic jets at exhaust pipe temperature 80 K, pressure up to 2 MPa abs and release diameters up to 4 mm. Simulation results are compared against experimentally measured parameters as hydrogen mass flow rate, flame length and radiative heat flux at several locations from the jet fire. The CFD model reproduces well experiments with reasonable engineering accuracy. Jet fire hazard distances established using three different criteria - temperature, thermal radiation and thermal dose - are compared and discussed based on CFD simulation results.

Funding source: This research has received funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No.779613 (PRESLHY), No.736648 (NET Tools), No.826193 (HyTunnel-CS) and No.875089 (HyResponder).
Related subjects: Safety
Countries: Germany ; United Kingdom

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