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Non-adiabatic Blowdown Model: A Complimentary Tool for the Safety Design of Tank-TPRD System


Previous studies have demonstrated that while blowdown pressure is reproduced well by both adiabatic and isothermal analytical models, the dynamics of temperature cannot be predicted well by either model. The reason for the last is heat transfer to cooling during expansion gas from the vessel wall. Moreover, when exposed to an external fire, the temperature inside the vessel increases, i.e. when a thermally activated pressure relief device (TPRD) is still closed, with subsequent pressure increase that may lead to a catastrophic rupture of the vessel. The choice of a TPRD exit orifice size and design strategy are challenges: to provide sufficient internal pressure drop in a fire when the orifice size is too small; to avoid flame blow off expected with the decrease of pressure during the blowdown; to decrease flame length of subsequent jet fire as much as possible by the decrease of the orifice size under condition of sufficient fire resistance provisions, to avoid pressure peaking phenomenon, etc. The adiabatic model of blowdown [1] was developed using the Abel-Nobel equation of state and the original theory of underexpanded jet [2]. According to experimental observations, e.g. [3], heat transfer plays a significant role during the blowdown. Thus, this study aims to modify the adiabatic blowdown model to include the heat transfer to non-ideal gas. The model accounts for a change of gas temperature inside the vessel due to two “competing” processes: the decrease of temperature due to gas expansion and the increase of temperature due to heat transfer from the surroundings, e.g. ambience or fire, through the vessel wall. This is taken into account in the system of equations of adiabatic blowdown model through the change of energy conservation equation that accounts for heat from outside. There is a need to know the convective heat transfer coefficient between the vessel wall and the surroundings and wall size and properties to define heat flux to the gas inside the vessel. The non-adiabatic model is validated against available experimental data. The model can be applied as a new engineering tool for the inherently safer design of hydrogen tank-TPRD system.

Related subjects: Safety
Countries: United Kingdom

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Non-adiabatic blowdown model- a complimentary tool for the safety design of tank-TPRD system

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