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Cryogenic Hydrogen Jets: Flammable Envelope Size and Hazard Distances for Jet Fire


Engineering tools for calculation of hazard distances for cryogenic hydrogen jets are currently missing. This study aims at the development of validated correlations for calculation of hazard distances for cryogenic unignited releases and jet fires. The experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on jets from storage temperature in the range 46-295 K and pressure up to 6 bar abs are used to expand the validation domain of the correlations. The Ulster’s under-expanded jet theory is applied to calculate parameters at the real nozzle exit. The similarity law for concentration decay in momentum-dominated jets is shown to be capable to reproduce experimental data of SNL on 9 unignited cryogenic releases. The accuracy of the similarity law to predict experimentally measured axial concentration decay improves with the increase of the release diameter. This is thought due to decrease of the effect of friction and minor losses for large release orifices. The dimensionless flame length correlation is applied to analyse 30 cryogenic jet fire tests. The deviation of calculated flame length from measured in experiments is mostly within acceptable accuracy for engineering correlations, 20%, similarly to releases from storage and equipment at atmospheric temperatures. It is concluded that the similarity law and the dimensionless flame correlation can be used as universal engineering tools for calculation of hazard distances for hydrogen releases at any storage temperature, including cryogenic.

Related subjects: Safety
Countries: United Kingdom

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Cryogenic hydrogen jets- flammable envelope size and hazard distances for jet fire

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