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Numerical Prediction of Cryogenic Hydrogen Vertical Jets


Comparison of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions with measurements is presented for cryo-compressed hydrogen vertical jets. The stagnation conditions of the experiments are characteristic of unintended leaks from pipe systems that connect cryogenic hydrogen storage tanks and could be encountered at a fuel cell refuelling station. Jets with pressure up to 5 bar and temperatures just above the saturation liquid temperature were examined. Comparisons are made to the centerline mass fraction and temperature decay rates, the radial profiles of mass fraction and the contours of volume fraction. Two notional nozzle approaches are tested to model the under-expanded jet that was formed in the tests with pressures above 2 bar. In both approaches the mass and momentum balance from the throat to the notional nozzle are solved, while the temperature at the notional nozzle was assumed equal to the nozzle temperature in the first approach and was calculated by an energy balance in the second approach. The two approaches gave identical results. Satisfactory agreement with the measurements was found in terms of centerline mass fraction and temperature. However, for test with 3 and 4 bar release the concentration was overpredicted. Furthermore, a wider radial spread was observed in the predictions possibly revealing higher degree of diffusion using the k-ε turbulence model. An integral model for cryogenic jets was also developed and provided good results. Finally, a test simulation was performed with an ambient temperature jet and compared to the cold jet showing that warm jets decay faster than cold jets.

Related subjects: Safety
Countries: Greece ; United States

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Numerical prediction of cryogenic hydrogen vertical jets

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