Skip to content

Achieving Carbon-neutral Iron and Steelmaking in Europe Through the Deployment of Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage


The 30 integrated steel plants operating in the European Union (EU) are among the largest single-point CO2 emitters in the region. The deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (bio-CCS) could significantly reduce their emission intensities. In detail, the results demonstrate that COemission reduction targets of up to 20% can be met entirely by biomass deployment. A slow CCS technology introduction on top of biomass deployment is expected, as the requirement for emission reduction increases further. Bio-CCS could then be a key technology, particularly in terms of meeting targets above 50%, with COavoidance costs ranging between €60 and €100 tCO2−1 at full-scale deployment. The future of bio-CCS and its utilisation on a larger scale would therefore only be viable if such COavoidance cost were to become economically appealing. Small and medium plants in particular, would economically benefit from sharing COpipeline networks. COtransport, however, makes a relatively small contribution to the total COavoidance cost. In the future, the role of bio-CCS in the European iron and steelmaking industry will also be influenced by non-economic conditions, such as regulations, public acceptance, realistic COstorage capacity, and the progress of other mitigation technologies.

Related subjects: Applications & Pathways

Article metrics loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error