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Recent progress in ammonia fuel cells and their potential applications

Abstract

Conventional technologies are largely powered by fossil fuel exploitation and have ultimately led to extensive environmental concerns. Hydrogen is an excellent carbon-free energy carrier, but its storage and long-distance transportation remain big challenges. Ammonia, however, is a promising indirect hydrogen storage medium that has well-established storage and transportation links to make it an accessible fuel source. Moreover, the notion of ‘green ammonia’ synthesised from renewable energy sources is an emerging topic that may open significant markets and provide a pathway to decarbonise a variety of applications reliant on fossil fuels. Herein, a comparative study based on the chosen design, working principles, advantages and disadvantages of direct ammonia fuel cells is summarised. This work aims to review the most recent advances in ammonia fuel cells and demonstrates how close this technology type is to integration with future applications. At present, several challenges such as material selection, NOx formation, CO2 tolerance, limited power densities and long term stability must still be overcome and are also addressed within the contents of this review.

Funding source: EPSRC; Innovate UK
Related subjects: Applications & Pathways
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/content/journal1367
2020-11-26
2021-12-04
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal1367
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